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疱觌囔 - advertisement



形难衣磐腿嗜 世先依屠

如 怦邈 蝾泐, 麇 禧 箧 镱珥嚓铎桦桉, 恹, 忮痤蝽, 篑镥腓 玎戾蜩螯, 黩 琨 钺豚溧弪 疋铊扈 铖钺 怅篑囔, 耔祜囹扈, 囗蜩镟蜩扈, 镳桠赅扈 镳桠玎眄铖扈, 玎鬣耱簋 铗腓黜 铗 镳桠尻 怅篑钼 膻犷泐 铗溴朦眍泐 泐忸泐 磬 礤 麇腩忮赅.

帖 忤溴腓, 赅 疣珉梓睇 琨赅 镱怆 疋铊 桤膻犭屙睇 , 磬钺铕铗, 疱玷疣屐 桁 耦麇蜞龛 玮箨钼.

皖 耠钼囔 琨赅, 镱-忤滂祛祗, 忸珥桕噱 蜞赕 疋铄, 礤 怦邈溧 恹蝈赅邋 桤 腓黜 怅篑钼 膻溴, 铗眍龛.

洛顸爨 鬣耱 铐 镳怆弪 蝠箐眍钺耥桁 疣珉梓 戾驿 耋潼徉扈 疣珉梓睇 玎桁耱忸忄眄 耠钼 桦, 妁 鬣, 觐痦彘. 软铋 疣 禧 镱腠 礤漕箪屙桢 忤滂, 赅 赅觐-腓犷 耠钼 漯邂礤泐 桦 耦怵屐屙眍泐 琨赅, 赅觐-蝾 邈 觐疱睃 桦 铖眍忄 忭彗囡眍 耠钼眍 猁 徨 铖钺 镳梓桧 磬麒磬弪 疣耧痤耱疣螯 桤 琨赅 琨, 怦 疱 疱, 怦 溧朦 溧朦, 蝾沅 赅 漯筱桢, 忸 怦屐 屐 镱漕犴, 龛赅 礤 祛泱 恹轵 玎 羼蝈耱忮眄 镳邃咫 疋铄 耱疣睇.

念忸朦眍 痤觐, 赅 恹 蝾朦觐 黩 筢邃桦桉, 疣耨咫桦铖 镱 琨赅 珏祀 猁怿邋 漯邂礤沭鬻羼觐 耠钼 囵铖 (蝾黜邋 邈 觐疱睃, 耠钽 囵). 橡栩铎 忸 祉钽桢 琨觇 铐 忸, 镱黩 礤 戾 镥疴铐圜嚯钽 耢豚.

央篦噱蝰 钺疣蝽铄: 耠钼 礤 蝾朦觐 镥疱躅滂 铗 磬痤溧 磬痤潴, 眍 忮玟 磬 疋铄 矬蜩 赅 猁 钺疣耱噱 眍恹扈 眍恹扈 珥圜屙扈. 武桧 蝾 驽 觐疱睃 痤漤铎 琨赍 黧骅 溧弪 礤铈桎囗眍 犷朦 麒耠 镳铊玮钿睇 耠钼. 鬣耱 溧驽 蝠箐眍 猁忄弪 箸磬螯 溧脲觐 疣耨咫桠躐 镱蝾礻圊 躅螯 钿眢 麇痱铟牦 溧忭 玎猁蝾泐 镳邃赅.

酿邂礤 需戾 邈 豚蜩眈觐 琨赍 猁腩 犷朦 沩彗漕 耠钼, 镳铊聃钿 铗 觐痦 囡. 项驵塍, 襦禧 忄骓 铖眍忭 桤 龛 铌噻嚯铖 磬 镳铗驽龛 忮觐 耠钼 囡篁 泐腩忄.

漕 桁 耠钼铎, 钿磬觐, 漯邂龛 豚蜩眈觇 痼觐镨 怦蝠鬻噱蝰 礤爨腩 邈 痤漶蜮屙龛觐, 邈 镳禧 觐疋屙睇 镱蝾礻钼. 袜 桤忮耱睇 蜞觇 耠钼, 赅 囡桷梵旎 (capicium) 泐腩忭铋 筢铕 桤忮耱眍泐 镱牮, 囡栩嚯 (capital) 耥圜嚯 蝾驽 泐腩忭铋 筢铕, 玎蝈 觐脲 潆 溴礤, 觐蝾瘥 耋邂屦睇 痂祀礤  聍囫螯寤 怙脲蜞腓 囡桦腓 (capilli), 蝾 羼螯 耦狁蜮屙睇 忸腩覃 泥脲 耠邃簋 囡栩箅箪 (capitulum) 觏桄磬 汶噔, 囡栩咫塍旎 (capitellum) 忮瘐篪赅 耱铍徉 桦 觐腩眄, 囡栩嚯桉 (capitalis) 镳桦嚆囹咫铄, 铉磬鬣怿邋 泐腩忭, 蝾 羼螯 疋玎眄 骅珥 耢屦螯, 觐沅 溴腩 桎弪 铍钼寤 麇腩忮赅 埋  钿磬 皴禳, 忮蝾麝 钿眍泐 觐痦 囡.

湾 猁腩 猁 痤忭 龛麇泐 箐桠栩咫钽, 羼腓 猁 礤觐蝾瘥 桤 桴 耠钼 猁腓 镳铖蝾 箜囫脲漕忄睇 铗 痂祀 漯筱桁 犭桤觇扈 桦 痤漶蜮屙睇扈 桁 磬痤溧扈: 蜞觇 忮 镳铊聃钿桦 耦 祉钽桁 豚蜩眈觇扈 觐痦扈. 皖 觐痦 囡 (cap) 镱忮珉 铖钺屙眍.

篷腓 耧痤 忄, 黩 钺泐 戾驿 耱铍 疣珉梓睇扈 耠钼囔, 赅 囡栩囗 (耠钼, 骅怏 忸 祉钽桴 琨赅), 囡赅 (耠钼, 赅玎腩顸 猁, 麒耱 痼耨觐) 嚅蝼咫 (磬玮囗桢 疣轭磬 囗汶栝耜铋 耱铍桷, 玎皴脲眄钽 徨漤铗铋), 恹 磬忮痦赅 铗忮蜩蝈, 黩 龛麇泐 钺泐 戾驿 龛扈 礤 篑爨蝠桠噱蝈 龛 镱 耢塍, 龛 镱 玮箨囔. 磬 襦祛 溴脲 耠钼  犭桤觇 痤漶蜮屙龛觇.

橡彐溴 怦邈 玎溧滂 皴徨 忸镳铖: 黩 铉磬鬣弪 玮囗桢 囡栩囗? 枢镨蜞  蝾, 觐祗 镱腩驽眍 觐爨礓钼囹 囵扈 痤蝾, 猁螯 邋 汶噔铋, 赅 铍觐忭桕 怆弪 豚忸 镱腙嗷. 央钼 囡栩囗 礤痼耨觐泐 镳铊聃铈溴龛;  耠钼, 溧忭 耱噔 戾驿箜囵钿睇. 项-麴囗鲶珩觇 耦铗忮蝰蜮簋 玮囗桢 狍溴 囡栩 (镨蝰: capitaine), 镱-囗汶栝耜 蜩砘 (captain). 闰嚯礤 桁屙箦 觐爨礓桊 痤螓 朦 赅镨蜞礤 (il capitano), 桉镟礤 朦 赅镨蜞砘 (el capitan). 项镟腩  耠钼 溧驽 蝮疱鲫栝 琨: 钿眍 桤 恹聒桴 祛瘃觇 玮囗栝 蜞 钿眍 怵屐 猁腩 囡箐囗-镟, 礤黩 怵钿 噤扈疣豚. 皖 忮潼 磬 赅镨蜞 汶噔 礤 蝾朦觐 痤螓, 眍 栾噫 觐疣犭.

丸 钿眍 桤 桴 琨觐, 钿磬觐, 耠钼 囡栩囗, 赅 猁 铐 龛 镳铊珥铖桦铖, 礤 疋琨忄弪 漯筱桁 桴 耠钼囔. 枢 镱-痼耨觇, 铐 龛 耱铊 耦忮瘌屙眍 铖钺觐; 邈 礤朦 钺耥栩 镳 镱祛 漯筱桴 耠钼, 赅 祛骓, 磬镳桁屦, 耠钼 犭嚓罨 钺耥栩 镳 镱耩邃耱忮 耠钼 徕铍嚓桠囹 桦 耠钼 钼觇榛 镳 镱祛 耠钼 钼栩.

忸 酿邂礤 需戾 蜞觐 钺耥屙桢 祛汶 猁螯 溧眍 铟屙 脲汴 镳铖蝾: 囡栩囗, 羼蝈耱忮眄, 钿眍泐 觐痦 囡篁 (caput) 铍钼嗷, 镱蝾祗 黩 耠钼  犭桤觇 镱 耢塍. 囡栩囗 珥圜栩: 豚忭, 蝾 羼螯 铍钼眍榛. 蒡 蜞 驽 镱蝽, 赅 镱蝽 磬 漕疱忸膻鲨铐眍 玮囗桢 疣漶觐泐 泐腩恹, 觐蝾瘥 磬溴腭 镳邃皴溧蝈朦 妙痤漶觐 潴禧.

磬 耦怵屐屙睇 琨觇, 琨觇 磬痤漕 赔痤稃, 镳铐桕腩 钽痤祉铄 麒耠 耠钼, 镳铊玮钿睇 铗 漯邂礤豚蜩眈觐泐 觐痦 囡, 耠钼, 蜞 桦 桧圜 疋玎眄 镱蜩屐 铍钼.

骂-镥疴, 玟羼 犷朦 觐腓麇耱忸 疣珉梓睇 磬玮囗栝 泐腩忭 筢铕钼. 磬 囡赅, 赅 麴囗鲶珩觐 囡罨 (镨蝰: chapeau), 耠钼 囡铕, 囗汶栝耜铄 耠钼  (镨蝰: cap), 眍耠噔眈觐 囡桷嗷, 耱噔 麒耱 痼耨觇 屣赅 怦 , 蝾麝 琊屙 琨觐忮溧, 疣珉梓睇 嚆铍钼龛觇, 泐腩忭 筢铕. 埋 铐 铗溧脲眄 镱蝾礻 蝾泐 驽 豚蜩眈觐泐 囡篁.

骂-怛铕, 蝮 礤爨腩 耠钼, 铉磬鬣桴 蜞 桦 桧圜 屦蹴 鬣耱 赅觐泐-腓犷 镳邃戾蜞, 邈 铍钼蠡, 豚怏.

添钽桁 桤 磬, 礤耦祉屙眍, 镱镟溧腩顸 疣珉梓睇 痼耨觇 铒桉囗 囵蹊蝈牝箴睇 镟蝽桕钼 耠钼 囡栩咫. 亦 磬琨忄 忮瘐睨 鬣耱, 铍钼蠡 觐腩眄.

磬 琨赍 牦镱 鲥痍忤 祉钽 耱铍弪栝 桁屙钼嚯 豚忸榛.

襄疱 磬扈

渔 徨腩赅戾眄铋 填耜恹,

枢 驵, 牮羼蜞扈 珙腩螓扈

妙 耱囵桧睇 汶噔麉

.犙.犗篪觇

豚忄 珥圜栩 铍钼嗷. 蒡 镱蜩 祛汶 脲汴 镥疱轵 磬 牦镱豚 鲥痍忮 漯筱桴 琨赅. 亦 铐 猁腩. 肃蜩眈觐 耠钼 囡咫豚, 镱蝾 忸 麴囗鲶珩觐 琨赍 玎玮篦噔 赅 囡咫 (chapelle), 磬漕 镱豚汔螯, 蜞赕 疋玎眍 镱蜩屐 豚忮. 珥圜桦 铐: 鬣耦忭, 鲥痍钼赅 钿龛 嚯蜞疱. 耠噔眈觇 琨赅  耠钼 镳邂疣蜩腩顸 耠钼 囡腓鲟 (鬣耦忭). 囗汶栝耜铎 铐 驽 溧腩 耠钼 咫 (镨蝰: chapel). 袜玮囗桢, 觐蝾痤 镳桠脲觌 磬 忭桁囗桢,爾 嚅蝼咫 铉磬鬣弪: 礤 犷脲 礤 戾礤, 赅 咫 鬣耦忭. 填骓 镱豚汔螯, 黩 铐, 疋铪 铟屦邃, 疋玎眍 耠铈睇扈 溧忭桁 疋扈 蝈 驽 痂祚觇 觐痦屐.

皖 钽 爨腩. 礤祗 驽 铖躅蚧 徨聍桉脲眄 漯筱桢 磬 耠钼 蝈痨桧, 鬣耱 忮顸爨 忄骓, 鬣耱 箫铗疱犭桢, 镳桁屙桢 襦禧 疣珉梓睇 琨赅.

囡栩嚯, 囡栩嚯桉蚧, 囡栩嚯桤旎, 囡栩嚯桉蜩麇耜栝 怦  镱蝾祚蜮 豚蜩眈觐泐 囡栩嚯, 铉磬鬣怿邈 铠咫尻 耦 怙脲蝈眄 礤泐 忸腩襦扈 躅桧嗷, 桦 囡栩嚯桉, 珥圜桠泐: 囔铄 铖眍忭铄, 汶噔眍, 忄骓彘寤.

囡栩箅 妁 礤溧忭 痼耨觐 麒眍忭梓 琨赍 铉磬鬣腩 羼蝾 耦狃囗, 铖钺铄 篦疱驿屙桢. 漕疱忸膻鲨铐眍 蓄耨梃 囡栩箅 铕溴眍饣 忮溧 怦屐 溴豚扈 磬沭噫溴龛 镱戾腭 耱铍桷 襄蝈疳箴沐.

畜耨觇 琨 潆 蝈痨桧, 怆邈铖 磬玮囗桢 疣玟咫 蝈犟蜞, 忡 耠噔眈觐泐 镳铊聃铈溴龛 耠钼 豚忄. 皖 蝮 珥圜桦-蝾 铐: 铍钼嗷, 玞aput.

骂 祉钽桴 驽 玎镟漤铄怵铒彘耜桴 琨赅 潆 蝾 驽 鲥腓 猁 桉镱朦珙忄 礤 蝈麇耱忮眄, 豚蜩眈觇 觐疱睃, 铉磬鬣栝 泐腩怏: 麴囗鲶珙 豚忄 囡栩鸹 (chapitre), 囗汶梓囗 螨 (chapter), 缅痨囗梃 囡栩咫 (Kapitel). 埋  耠钼 桎篁 铗 豚蜩眈觐泐 囡栩箅箪, 觐蝾痤 耩邃 漯筱桴 珥圜屙栝 桁咫 蜞赕: 龛骓 汶噔嗷, 汶噔脲龛寤. 悟 囡篁 镳铊聃钿栩 磬桁屙钼囗桢 赅蝾腓麇耜钽 祛磬耜钽 铕溴磬 赅矬鲨眍: 邈 泐腩忭 筢铕铎 猁腓 铖钺 觐腼嚓 囡篥鳆. 悟 囡篁 痤滂腭 蝾 镟龛麇耜栝, 磬 怦艴 琨赅 耱噔 镱蝽 忸玢豚: 囡篁!, 觐蝾瘥 皲噔嚯桉 镫屙 忸 怵屐 洛腓觐 悟鬻羼蜮屙眍 忸轫 羿耱耜桢 泐腩忸疱琨.

骂 赅觐, 溴轳蜮栩咫 汨汔眚耜栝, 牮筱 镱蝾礻钼 铖蜞忤 镱 皴徨 钿桧 桤 觐痦彘 溧忭 玎祛腙泐 琨赅 豚螓龛.

朽珞戾弪, 礤 怙铍礤 耠篦嚅眍, 黩 桁屙眍 铐 镱痤驿屙睇 桁 耠钼 镳桀狃咫 蜞牦 箐桠栩咫簋 镱矬痦铖螯, 蜞觐 痤觐 疣耧痤耱疣礤龛: 耠桫觐 箧 忄骓, 镱桉蜩礤 钿龛 桤 豚忭, 囡栩嚯, 怆腩顸 怆弪 镱蜩 铍钼嗷 骅珥 麇腩忮赅.

塔犷稃蝽 铗戾蜩螯, 钿磬觐, 黩 襦祛 豚蜩眈觐 琨赍 觐眦 邈 耋耱忸忄龛,爾 忮痤蝽, 桁屙眍 犭嚆钿囵 礤镱戾痦 恹痤聒屐 麒耠 耠钼, 痤漶蜮屙睇 囡篁 (泐腩忄),爾 忸珥桕豚 礤钺躅滂祛耱 玎戾龛螯 邈 赅觇-腓犷 漯筱桁, 犷脲 桦, 戾礤 蝈瘌桁 铗 镱耱眄钽 箫铗疱犭屙 耠钼铎. 橡彐溴 怦邈 礤钺躅滂祛耱  镱黧怦蜮钼嚯 蝾沅帏礤 痤耱铕鬻, 蝾 箅囵睇榛 琨, 磬 觐蝾痤 泐忸痂腓 泐痤漶觇 龛琨. 桴 疱麒 耠钼 囡篁 镱耱屣屙眍 镥疱耱嚯 箫铗疱犭螯. 陪 玎戾龛腩 漯筱铄, 犷脲 痼犷寤, 眍 玎蝾 犷脲 恹疣玷蝈朦眍 耠钼 蜞; 镥疴铐圜嚯 铐 珥圜桦 腓睇 泐瘌铌, 玎蝈 屦屣铌, 镱蝾 屦屣 磬觐礤 铍钼嗷. 橡铊珙 蝾鼽--蝾鼽 蝾, 黩 镳铊聃钿栩 磬, 觐沅 禧 泐忸痂 桊铐梓羼觇 镳 麇腩忮赅:  礤泐 觐蝈腩 礤 疣犷蜞弪 桦:  礤泐 麇痄嚓 耦怦屐 矬耱铋.

皖 镱漕犴 耠钼鬻觇 磬 铖蜞 镱赅 磬 玎溻铕赅 琨赅, 痂祚觐祗 屦屣牦 蝈 镱聍囫螂桠桦铖. 骂 祉钽桴 耦怵屐屙睇 磬 痤爨眈觇 琨赅 耠钼, 铉磬鬣桢 泐腩怏, 镳铊聃钿 桁屙眍 铗 铋 镳铖蝾磬痤漤铋 螓, 礤 铗 囵桉蝾牮囹梓羼觐泐 囡篁. 项-赅蜞腩眈觇 铍钼嗷 蜞, 蜞 驽 赅 镳钼囗襦朦耜铎 栩嚯眈觐 琨赅. 项-麴囗鲶珩觇 铐 . 西邂桎眍, 纛痨桊钼囗梃 桴 琨觐 镳桧桁嚯 篦囫蜩 礤 觏桄磬, 礤 腓蝈疣蝮痦, 磬痤漤 豚螓睃. 忸 桉镟眈觐 琨赍 铍钼嗷 铉磬鬣弪 耠钼铎 噌弼鲟, 溧 痼禧睇 桁屙簋 邋 囡. 族  钺耥栩? 填骓 镳邃镱豚汔螯, 黩 蝈 痂祚觇 忸桧 镱皴脲眦, 觐蝾瘥 玎礤耠 豚蜩眈觇 琨 酿邂睨 柔屦棹 磬 徨疱汔 捏磬, 篪腓 桤 疋铄泐 铗鬻羼蜮 漕 蝾泐, 赅 耠钼 蜞 铌铐鬣蝈朦眍 忡腩 忮瘐 磬 囡篁.

朽耨爨蝠桠 麟屙钼 皴禳 钽 囡篁, 邈 忭箨钼 镳噔眢觐, 箐桠屮, 漕 麇泐 漕 疣珥桷 戾驿 龛扈. 昨 钺泐 戾驿 漯邂龛 痂祚觇 囡篁 耦怵屐屙睇 囗汶栝耜桁 屣螨 桦 戾驿 忄骓, 襦眍忭 耠钼铎 囡栩箅 磬 玎漕痦 屣铟赅? 皖 磬 桁 礤 镱疣玷: 禧 箧 忤溴腓, 赅 耔朦眍 戾 耠钼, 赅 祉钽 铐 蝈 赅 祉钽 镳桀狃弪帼, 镥疱躅 桤 钿眍泐 琨赅 漯筱铋 桦 溧驽 镳铖蝾 耋耱怏 漕脬桢 忮赅 篑蜞 钿眍泐 磬痤溧.

泥, 忭箨 礤 镱躅骅 磬 溴漕, 溻铪痤漤 狃囹 漯筱 磬 漯筱: 礤脲汴 篑蜞眍忤螯 痤漶蜮 戾驿 龛扈. 嘛痤麇, 蜞 驽 礤脲汴 疣珙犭圜栩 桧 囔铉忄眦邂. 肃蜩眈觐 耠钼 囡咫豚 (capella) 铉铟赅 铟屙 磬镱扈磬弪 囡桦豚 (capilla) 铍铖, 镳铊聃钿栩 铗 囡疣 (capra) 铉嗷. 泥 磬 痼耨觇 囡 桦 囡咫 蝾驽 镱躅骅 磬 囡咫豚 磬 囡桦豚, 钺泐 戾驿 龛扈 礤 疱蝈朦眍 龛麇泐.


阉温, 饰椅形逃 2000 伺 | 央钼 耠钼圊 | 秒噔 6. 盟问肋 视悄欣